It is likely that the extent of these conditions can be reduced if children are treated in a more understanding way, where conflict is resolved rather than perpetuated. For example, a common parenting technique is “the naughty chair,” where the child sits, isolated, when the parent cannot control them. This technique clearly prolongs the conflict until the child accepts the parent's stand. During this time of extreme distress, the child actually needs to be closer to their parent.
If there is more emphasis on merely interacting with children, and less emphasis on controlling them, childhood becomes a much happier time for both parents and children.